No matter how much training one has received or how much employers try to safeguard their workers, Electrical Safety is ultimately the responsibil-ity of the electrical worker. Set the Source on Channel A of the oscilloscope, and the voltage across the ca[pcitance on Channel B of the oscilloscope. Consider what happens when resistors, capacitors, and inductors are combined in one circuit. This text introduces the most important of these digital circuits; adders, decoders, multiplexers, D flip-flops, and simple state machines. _____ Title Page: This should include the title of the lab, course number, names of all members of the lab group, and the date on which the lab was performed. RLC Circuit Quiz Questions Answers ) Search for: Related Pages. Indicate the resonance frequency f o and the width of the resonance curve (the bandwidth), which is the interval Δf = 2πΓ between two frequencies at which the power dissipated in the circuit is ½ of. A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that amplifies the difference between two input voltages but suppresses any voltage common to the two inputs. E11: RLC Resonant Circuit 11 -7 Figure 11-4. You will determine the resonance frequency, f o, and the quality factor, Q, for each circuit in several different ways. 80-H inductor, and an 80-μF capacitor. If we have a capacitor, inductor, and resistor placed in series or parallel with either a voltage or. It is inherent in all electrical circuits. Where a voltage source was required, a Heath model 2918 tri-power supply was connected to the circuit. 51 has been opened for a long time and the circuit has reached steady-state conditions. 1This wind turbine in the Thames Estuary in the UK is an example of induction at work. Since the current through each element is known, the voltage can be found in a straightforward manner. Like the RL Circuit, we will combine the resistor and the source on one side of the circuit, and combine them into a thevenin source. Given that the temperature and pressure ranges are large, the calibration equations between the voltage signals and the actual temperatures and pressures might not be precise for that entire range. Electronics II (Formerly 16. square(t,duty) is a "conventional" Matlab function that takes a vector t and outputs a vector of the same length. Non-infinite internal resistance of voltmeter (you want your voltmeter to draw as little current as possible) Resistances of. A circuit’s impulse response may be calculated mathematically using the Dirac delta function as the input “forcing function”. Construct the RLC circuit shown in Figure 5. ime-domain refectometer (TDR) A t consists of a step generator and an oscilloscope to measure the step response of the transmission line on the source side. The name RLC circuit is derived from the starting letter from the components of resistance, inductor, and capacitor. Now select the circuits in the order shown (L, then RL, etc. Normally the current (which must be equal at all points along a series circuit) is used as a reference signal in AC circuits. Single phase dimmer- stat 2. The circuit, which is shown in Figure A-1 of Appendix A, was designed according to the specifications obtained from the Computer Engineering Laboratories web site for ECPE 4535 [Lineberry, 2001]. 0 Hz and 10. the voltage divides between the elements of the series and. Introduction When a capacitor (C) is connected to a dc voltage source like a battery, charge builds up on its plates and the voltage across the plates increases until it equals the voltage (V) of the battery. The transient behavior of RC circuits is also tested. It enables the students to gain. Suppose we connect a battery, with voltage, , across a resistor and capacitor in series as shown by Figure 3. RLC Circuits (1) •The step response is obtained by the sudden application of a dc source. ME Lab Report 0 50. 1 µF are the same for the two curves. 1 H, and C = 10 nF, respectively. The RLC natural response falls into three categories: overdamped, critically damped, and underdamped. To understand the idea of resonance, and to determine the behavior of current and voltage in a driven RLC circuit above, below and at the resonant frequency PRE-LAB READING. Remote calls can often hang for a while before they time out. In a series circuit the total power is equal to the SUM of the power dissipated by the individual resistors. Common sources of error in physics laboratory experiments: Incomplete definition (may be systematic or random) - One reason that it is impossible to make exact measurements is that the measurement is not always clearly defined. () () CXt GXt BUtXX ⋅ += (1) Yt LXt( )= T ( ) (2) where X ∈RN+M represents the unknown vector, which consists of N nodal voltages, denoted by V ∈RN and M. Solve the remaining circuit. Inductance and Magnetic Energy 11. Metal tanks and containers. The DC Operating Point Analysis window should pop up (Error! Reference source not found. For the forms given, (6) Damping Ratio. In his Second law, it is stated that "For a closed loop series network or path, the algebraic sum of the products of resistances of the conductors and the current in them, is equal to zero or the total EMF available in that loop". 0 Ω resistor, a 3. June 19, 2000. Taking vc as the output and Vs as the input we can write the transfer function as ( / ) 1/( ) 1/( ) s2 R L s LC LC Vs vc. 2 General Discussion: The basic RL circuit being used in this assignment is shown in Figure 1. Record the barometric pressure. Learn the parts of a lab report including the title page, abstract, introduction, methods, results and more. Writing a set of node or mesh equations. If C = 100pF is used in the circuit above, calculate L such that the oscillation angular frequency, , is 107rad/sec. You can switch to Simulate Mode by clicking the "Simulate" button along the bottom toolbar. V1=V2=Vtot. Experiment 1: RC Circuits 7 2. Add the charging circuit across the capacitor. When the switch is moved to position , the battery is connected to the circuit and a time-varying current begins flowing through the circuit as the capacitor charges. A circuit’s impulse response may be calculated mathematically using the Dirac delta function as the input “forcing function”. From the three timed trials record the time between stimulus artifact and action potential (latency in ms) and measure the distance as described in the m. For an unknown RLC circuit, identifying and matching the transient response with the best possible curve can give us the important properties of the circuit such as ω 0 and Q. To prepare for the second part you should review Chap. An RLC series circuit has a 40. Like the RL Circuit, we will combine the resistor and the source on one side of the circuit, and combine them into a thevenin source. LCR Measurement Primer 6 of 78 1 What is Impedance? Electrical Impedance (Z), is the total opposition that a circuit presents to alternating current. Dorf and J. (k=10 3, u=10-6). Understand the dynamics of RLC circuits and appreciate their use to select out a particular frequency 3. Applications of RLC Series Circuit. They differ in that a capacitor stores energy as accumulated charge (voltage potential) and an inductor stores energy in a magnetic field that is due to. In general, the complex impedance is defined as follows: Z= V ~ I ~ (11) where Z is complex (of the form a+ib where a& b are real numbers) and V ~ & I are of the form V 0. Ohm performed repeated experiments on a resistor, applied different voltages, measured current and found relationship between these quantities. The current response of the series RLC circuit of Fig. Here are two examples of a lab report. Just before. Single phase dimmer- stat 2. Introduction to Laboratory Instruments Objectives: 1. when d was compared to σ d as the value of d (76. For series and parallel circuits, the resistor, capacitor and inductor are connected differently, and different damping factors result. In theory you can, therefore, have different combinations of resistors and capacitors. Procedure PART 1: Step Excitation of First-Order RL Circuits Pre-lab Assignment 1: A first-order inductive circuit is excited by a periodic pulse train as shown in Fig. The algorithms implemented by hMETIS are based on the multilevel hypergraph partitioning schemes developed in our lab. Frequency response of RLC resonance circuit, from Eq. We will generalize circuit analysis from constant to time-varying sources (Ch7-14). As all the three elements are connected in series so, the current flowing through each element of the circuit will be the same as the total current I flowing in the circuit. We look at the basic elements used to build circuits, and find out what happens when elements are connected together into a circuit. RLC Circuits Quiz Questions. Damping is furnished by the resistor. As its voltage approaches the source voltage (the 5V voltage source shown on the left), the current flowing into the capacitor decreases. Replace inductances with short circuits. In the limit R →0 the RLC circuit reduces to the lossless LC circuit shown on Figure 3. Prove that the expression for the damping ratio and the undamped resonant frequency for the circuit of Figure 1 is equal to, (6) 3. In his Second law, it is stated that "For a closed loop series network or path, the algebraic sum of the products of resistances of the conductors and the current in them, is equal to zero or the total EMF available in that loop". This is Practical of series Resonance R-L-C ckt for Basic Electrical Engineering. RLC Series Circuit When a pure resistance of R ohms, a pure inductance of L Henry and a pure capacitance of C farads are connected together in series combination with each other then RLC Series Circuit is formed. 0 V (peak-to-peak) sinusoidal wave as input voltage to the circuit. Measure gate voltage waveforms at the gate pin of MOSFET package. 2 General Discussion: The basic RL circuit being used in this assignment is shown in Figure 1. RC and RLC circuits. ime-domain refectometer (TDR) A t consists of a step generator and an oscilloscope to measure the step response of the transmission line on the source side. Inductor are the electrical analog of masses. 4 KW R 3 = 1. ) can be accessed here. The reason for this discrepancy is not understood, but is believed to be related to the operation of the voltmeter when used to measure voltages across. L - I lags V S by 90°. A two-port network is represented by four external variables: voltage and current at the input port, and voltage and current at the output port, so that the two-port network can be treated as a black. Fiore is copyrighted under the terms of a Creative RLC circuits in series with either voltage sources or a current source. Lab Manual Format Each of the entries in this lab manual consists of several sections: Abstract, Introduction and Theory, References, Pre-lab Preparation, Experiment, and Results. A circuit simulator with graphical user interface (GUI) Qucs is a circuit simulator with graphical user interface. resistance circuit gave errors of 10 to 20%. Electronic instruments are used to display or transmit the results 4. Build and analyze a simple electrical circuit 6. If your signal source is the collector of an NPN transistor driving a 50 Ω load, the. These include the independent DC and AC voltage and current sources, and the simple voltage or current controlled dependent voltage and current sources. AC source with RLC with Switch Sinusoidal source connected to a series RLC ckt through the switch. Metal tanks and containers. All of what follows here is for small signals (since only for small signals are these amplifiers linear)!!!!. Writing a set of node or mesh equations. These blunders should stick out like sore thumbs if one person checks the work of another person. The transient behavior of RC circuits is also tested. ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria). Consolidate experience of measuring frequency response 2 Pre-lab preparation 2. To perform short circuit test on a single phase transformer. The steady-state admittance offered by the circuit is: Y = 1/R + j( ωC – 1/ωL) Resonance occurs when the voltage and current at the input terminals are in phase. Second-Order RLC Circuits I. Inductance and Magnetic Energy 11. Written by Willy McAllister. Electronic instruments are used to display or transmit the results 4. A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that amplifies the difference between two input voltages but suppresses any voltage common to the two inputs. CHAPTER10:EXPERIMENT8 Figure10. : Welcome to the ECE 241 lab! In this first experiment, you will build and make measurements on a few resistor circuits. 5 Analysis Theorems and Techniques. Experiment 7: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits OBJECTIVES 1. You can reduce your odds of making these common mistakes by reviewing the following list. magazine "New Scientist. 1b June23,2019. Part A Stable Process when a Sinusoidal source is applied 1. An RLC series circuit contains all the three passive electrical components, Resistor Capacitor, and Inductor in series across an AC source. An energy source is used to provide the voltage needed to force the current Through the circuit. Note that if you are taking an AP Placement lab course, you need to present a suitable lab notebook in order to get AP credit at most colleges and universities. No matter how much training one has received or how much employers try to safeguard their workers, Electrical Safety is ultimately the responsibil-ity of the electrical worker. 2 The Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation. 2: Plotsofamplitude(top)and phase shift (bottom) for frequencies near resonance(f 0). Resonance is one of the most important and general phenomenon in almost all branches of science and technology. 27-9 RC Circuits In preceding sections we dealt only with circuits in which the currents did not vary with time. Voltage sources, in addition to being used for circuit excitation, are the 'ammeters' for SPICE, that is, zero valued voltage sources may be inserted into the circuit for the purpose of measuring current. rc circuits course: phy156 section: 12919 student name: gamoi paisley lab partner: sarahi marquez, emmanuela tanis date: 10/24/2017 objective: to examine the. 1 Diode Basics 6. To prepare students for more advanced courses in circuit analysis. 2) You have a 200 -Ω resistor, a 0. device that has no external power source such as a battery. Thus far we have analysed the behaviour of a series RLC circuit whose source voltage is a fixed frequency steady state sinusoidal supply. Pre-lab assignments. Experimental Setup: A function generator will supply a sinusoidal voltage to RC, RL, and RLC series circuits mounted on a circuit board. As a rule of thumb, defining all the mesh currents to flow clockwise result in a simpler circuit analysis. e X C > X L then, the RLC. It is inherent in all electrical circuits. circuits, with errors arising mostly from non -idealities of components and sources. To study and demonstrate the two wattmeter method of measuring the power in 3-phase networks. Immersion or Stem Conduction errors are caused by the flow of heat along the thermometer sheath. A series RLC circuit consists of a resistor R, an inductor L and a capacitor C connected in series. Models of two-port networks Many complex, such as amplification circuits and filters, can be modeled by a two-port network model as shown below. magazine "New Scientist. What do you notice about the relationship between the three voltage readings V 1, V 2, and V TOT in parallel circuits. Circuits containing one inductor or one capacitor are characterized by a transient response followed by a steady-state response. The dividing line between the three cases is different, however. View the circuit as a schematic diagram, or switch to a lifelike view. In any experiment involving currents there are many possible sources of error, here are a few systematic ones. We measured the time varying voltage across the capacitor in a RLC loop when an external voltage was applied. Selected excerpts will be posted on the course log for reference. PH 2223: Phase and Impedance in an RLC Circuit 3 Phase Measurements Each of the voltages in your circuit (v R, v L, v C, and v S, the source voltage) has the form v(t) = V max sin(ωt + ϕ), where V max is the amplitude (the maximum value, the zero-to-peak voltage) (see Figure 1b). In this GUI, you can change the R,L,C parameters and see the effect on the time and frequency responses in real time. Measuring a battery's open circuit voltage is not a reliable measure of its ability to deliver current. Consequently, we have ( )2 V = I R + XL − XC. RLC Circuit For drawing the phasor diagram of series RLC circuit, follow these steps: Step – I. Like a pure series LC circuit, the RLC circuit can resonate at a resonant frequency and the resistor increases the decay of the oscillations at this frequency. 3 Current Flowing through Inductor of RL Circuit 5. These equations show that a series RC circuit has a time constant, usually denoted τ = RC being the time it takes the voltage across the component to either rise (across C) or fall (across R) to within 1 / e of its final value. Experiments for First Year Electrical Engg Lab 2015-16 Dept of Electrical Engineering, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur 440013 INDIA Page 6 EXPERIMENT NO Aim: To study RLC series circuit. In exactly the same way that a real circuit must have some sort of power supply - even if that power supply is actually the signal source itself (for example, a crystal set or a volume control potentiometer) or comes from a capacitor pre-charged to some voltage or an inductor pre-charged to some current prior switching the circuit on - a. If the applied voltage in an RLC is of the form E= E 0sin(!t+ ˚) (2) where E. If the inductive reactance is greater than the capacitive reactance i. Internal resistance of ammeter. The oscillations in the RLC circuit will not damp out if an external emf source supplies enough energy to account for the energy lost from the resistor. Figure \(\PageIndex{1a}\) shows a simple RC circuit that employs a dc (direct current) voltage source \(ε\), a resistor \(R\), a capacitor \(C\), and. Objective: 1. It is not necessary to generate typewritten text or computer plots. RC, RL, and LCR Circuits EK307 Lab Note: This is a two week lab. As presented in Capacitance, the capacitor is an electrical component that stores electric charge, storing energy in an electric field. The circuit below shows a cascade of first-order uncompensated Common-source amplifiers. You already know that not everything conducts electricity equally well, and that some materials (like copper) resist very little, while others (like rubber) provide enough resistance to effectively prevent the ﬂow of current. tronic circuits 2. 1 A two-transistor current source is used to provide the required bias current for the single-transistor common-emitter ampliﬁer. As with circuits made up only of resistors, electrical current can ﬂow in. EXPERIMENT 3 Resistors in Series and in Parallel Print this page to start your lab report (1 copy) Print 2 copies of this file (data page) OBJECT: 1. Consider a circuit consisting of Resistor (R Ohms) , Capacitor (C Farads) , a Voltage Source (V voltage) and a switch as shown below:. eq 2: Complex second-order differential equation of the series RLC circuit. circuits and applications Design, test and modify these circuits using the SPICE simulator: Op amps, filters, sensors, switch-mode power supplies, PID controllers, audio amplifiers, etc. Instrumental errors can occur when the tools are not functioning exactly as they should be. P avg = VI cosφ. What NOT to do A. This lab is concerned with the characteristics of inductors and circuits consisting of a. Observe what happens to the other bulb and the ammeter reading and record your observations. Determine the impedance of an AC RLC circuit. To measure three phase power by using two wattmeter method. Read through this entire handout. ENEE 206 April 13, 2004 Laboratory 15 - Transient Response In 1st and 2nd Order Circuits A. Suppose we connect a battery, with voltage, , across a resistor and capacitor in series as shown by Figure 3. EveryCircuit is an easy to use, highly interactive circuit simulator and schematic capture tool. Chapter 24, sections 1-5 2. parallel or in series, and can be operated as constant voltage source or as constant current source. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. When the emf source is turned on, positive charge is driven around the circuit from point a to point b through the resistor R. Christmas is around the corner and the best gift for any occasion is a Rubik’s Cube which can be easily solved with this easy tutorial. 00-μF capacitor and a voltage source that has a voltage amplitude of 30. 1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to observe and measure the transient response of RLC circuits to external voltages. A current source of positive value forces current to flow out of the N+ node, through the source, and into the N- node. To analyze other standard circuit configurations such as low-pass and high-pass RLC networks, click on the link below to launch an interactive GUI. Set the Source on Channel A of the oscilloscope, and the voltage across the ca[pcitance on Channel B of the oscilloscope. Internal resistance of voltage source. AC source with RLC with Switch Sinusoidal source connected to a series RLC ckt through the switch. 2 The Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation. For voltage and current measurements, a Fluke model 8050A digital multimeter was used with standard multimeter probes. A better estimate for the uncertainty would be 1/3 of the increment between divisions on the scale. Thanks for your help 1) how Can we determine the resonance frequency in the RLC circuit? 2) Do you think that all electronic components in the circuit have resistance, inductance, and capacitance?. Electrical Resonance—RLC circuits 2 Part II OVERVIEW You will be testing four RLC circuits. sources of errors for rate of conduction of heat in copper, nickel, tin, brass and aluminium:-human reaction time error: was slow when timing the exact time the match stick fell - mechanical error: electrical glitches when using the stop watch sources of errors for thermal expansion of ball and ring:. In the last unit you saw that in a series circuit with a battery, 1. Selected excerpts will be posted on the course log for reference. This experiment will introduce you to the properties of circuits that contain both resistors AND capacitors. Material: An unknown resistance or resistance coil, connecting wires, a […]. ) Close the library selection window and we will begin the construction of the following circuit. Simulation lab rewritten. 2 Complex Impedance When one is interested in finding the voltage of an element in an AC circuit, the method of complex impedance is very useful. Procedures Purpose Mercuric Nitrate Monohydrate Synonyms: nitric acid mercury (2+) salt Chemical Formula: Hg(NO3)2 Avoid high temperatures, light, reducing agents, cyanides and nitrogen oxides. We will generalize circuit analysis from constant to time-varying sources (Ch7-14). Figure \(\PageIndex{1a}\) shows a simple RC circuit that employs a dc (direct current) voltage source \(ε\), a resistor \(R\), a capacitor \(C\), and. Use two banana plug leads to create the following circuit using the RLC circuit board. Objective: 1. Clicking the 'Load Circuit' button will load the circuit and display it in the right panel. An energy source is used to provide the voltage needed to force the current Through the circuit. Natural Response of Parallel RLC Circuits The problem - given initial energy stored in the inductor and/or capacitor, find v(t) for t ≥ 0. docx Page 13 of 25 2016-01-07 8:48:00 PM Configuration II. sk\s*Jeeves#i','#HP\s*Web\s*PrintSmart#i','#HTTrack#i','#IDBot#i','#Indy\s*Library#','#ListChecker#i','#MSIECrawler#i','#NetCache#i','#Nutch#i','#RPT-HTTPClient#i','#. We call the response of a circuit immediately after a sudden change the transient response, in contrast to the steady state. Parallel RLC circuits sum up the resistances as 1/Z = √(1/R) 2 + (1/X L - 1/X C) 2 _the same way resistors in parallel are summed up using their inverses, and this value _1/Z is also known as the admittance of a circuit. We had to basically keep on increasing the electric potential at the source and then record the voltage across the resistor, and the current then calculate the resistance. 5 Analysis Theorems and Techniques. Introduction Resonance is a condition in an RLC circuit in which the capacitive and reactive reactance are equal in magnitude, thereby resulting in a purely resistive impedance. RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X Objective In this series of experiments, the time constant of an RC circuit will be measured exper-imentally and compared with the theoretical expression for it. Calculate I 1, I 2, I 3 and Vo for the circuit shown in Figure 1 for f = 1kHz and f = 10kHz. RC circuit: The RC circuit (Resistor Capacitor Circuit) will consist of a Capacitor and a Resistor connected either in series or parallel to a voltage or current source. Lab E4: Capacitors and the RC Circuit Capacitors are among the most-commonly used circuit elements in modern electronic devices. 1µF and L=1. Study the basic functions of digital multi-meter (DMM) 3. Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) Sources of Error Immersion Error – Stem Conduction With the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (RTD) stem conduction is likely to be the main source of error. E11: RLC Resonant Circuit 11 -7 Figure 11-4. 2: RLC Circuits have been answered, more than 5734 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. An RC circuit can be used to make some crude filters like low-pass, high-pass and Band-Pass filters. * A series RLC circuit driven by a constant current source is trivial to analyze. The angle for the RLC circuit depends on which leg is larger. RLC passive circuit. Lab 7 - LR Circuits Introduction The English physicist Michael Faraday found in 1831 that when the current through a coil changes, the coil produces a changing magnetic field (in addition to the field of the changing current), which induces an electromotive force ("emf") in the coil itself. First the brief and concise introduction of capacitive and inductive circuits is provided explaining the effect of introducing each of them in a resistive circuit. Use a voltmeter, an ameter to measure the voltage across parts of the series and parallel circuits and an ameter to measure the current through the circuits. C1 3 0 1uF * Voltage Source (A 5V pulse) Vsupply 1 0 PULSE(0 5 0 0 0 1 2) * Transient Analysis for 500 micro-seconds. The period is the sum of the positive pulse and the negative pulse durations. Consider a circuit consisting of Resistor (R Ohms) , Capacitor (C Farads) , a Voltage Source (V voltage) and a switch as shown below:. RL Circuit Equipment Capstone with 850 interface, 2 voltage sensors, RLC circuit board, 2 male to male banana leads approximately 80 cm in length 1 Introduction The three basic linear circuit elements are the resistor, the capacitor, and the inductor. ECE 494 - Electrical Engineering Laboratory III Experiment 1: Three Phase Power Measurements Objectives To demonstrate the line and phase relations in 3-phase balanced networks. Within the circuit was an LM3911 temperature controller integrated circuit (IC), the output of which we connected to a non-inverting op-amp. The parameters , , and characterize the behavior of a canonical second-order system. All articles of this app are totally based on practical experiences as well as a strong base of theoretical knowledge and is written in very simple and. In this section, we will use the computer program MATLAB to solve the equations. The type of natural response is described by the damping factor ζ, which for the series RLC circuit is: C L R 2 ς=. RLC Circuits – SciLab Examples rlcExamples. These include as buffers on large transmission lines to reduce energy surges, on a smaller scale. The parameters of an RLC circuit are calculated from the resistance (R), inductance (L) and capacitance (C), using known equations. Frequency Response of a Circuit Z. You might. RLC Series Circuit. INTRODUCTION. Build the above RLC circuit with the isolation transformer. The sequence of letters in the circuit name can be different: RLC, RCL, LCR, etc. Second-order system. You will determine the resonance frequency, f o, and the quality factor, Q, for each circuit in several different ways. Start studying PHY 112L- Lab 8 RLC series circuit with an AC source. If the emf \(E\) of the source varies according to the law \[E\left( t \right) = {E_0}\cos \omega t,\] then the differential equation of forced oscillations in series \(RLC\)-circuit can be written as \. Impedance changes according to the components in the circuit and the frequency of the. Chapter 6 Capacitors and RC Circuits Name: Lab Partner: Section: 6. When a battery with voltage is connected across the capacitor, equal and opposite charges rapidly collect onto the plates due to the electric field created by the wires connecting the two plates 1. Finally, Gauss got angry and stormed into the lab, claiming he would show these people how to do the measurements once and for all. They have done the same thing with the other 2 cases (not shown). The Organic Chemistry Tutor 378,712 views 1:00:12. The regularly spaced bumps in the road drive the wheel up and down; in the same way, a voltage source increases and decreases. The circuit whose parameters change with the change in voltage and current is called the non-linear ckt. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. com's RLC Circuit Equivalent Resistance (Z eq ) Calculator is an online electrical engineering tool to calculate resultant resistivity for resistor (R), inductor (L) & capacitor (C) connected in series or parallel. If a battery is being used, remove two cells from the battery. To appreciate the reason for this, we can investigate how each circuit element behaves when either the voltage or current is a complex exponential. Let's understand them. AC Circuits Basics, Impedance, Resonant Frequency, RL RC RLC LC Circuit Explained, Physics Problems - Duration: 1:00:12. Use the multimeter to measure the resistances of the resistor, R (labeled as 10 Ω), and the inductor coil, R L. Demonstrating resonance phenomena in RLC circuits. The impedance Z of a series RLC circuit is defined as opposition to the flow of current due circuit resistance R, inductive reactance, X L and capacitive reactance, X C. 99 smallest division marked on the scale. The initial current running through the circuit is provided by the charged capacitor. resistance circuit gave errors of 10 to 20%. 4 Special measuring circuits 94 A 6. ; In an RC circuit connected to a DC voltage source, voltage on the capacitor is initially zero and rises rapidly at first since the initial current is a maximum: [latex]\text{V}(\text{t. To change the voltage suddenly, a function generator will be used. Cadence will also be used to understand and measure transistor model parameters. Just before. Example: Sam does an experiment to find how long it takes an apple to drop 2 meters. A resonant circuit, also called a tuned circuit consists of an inductor and a capacitor together with a voltage or current source. 1 µF are the same for the two curves. Introduction Resonance is a condition in an RLC circuit in which the capacitive and reactive reactance are equal in magnitude, thereby resulting in a purely resistive impedance. Thus, 2 2 V = I R + XL (6) Series RLC Circuit In a series RLC circuit, since the voltage across L leads the current by 90 o and the voltage across C lags the current by 90 o, then the voltages across L and C are 180 o out of phase. To learn how current behaves in series and parallel circuits. The editor always starts in Build Mode. Laboratory 7: RC Time Constant. Voltage sources, in addition to being used for circuit excitation, are the 'ammeters' for SPICE, that is, zero valued voltage sources may be inserted into the circuit for the purpose of measuring current. * A series RLC circuit driven by a constant current source is trivial to analyze. The output voltages are available through safety sockets on the front panel. Resonance circuits are useful for constructing filters and used in many application. The calculated equivalent resistances for the series circuits will abide by the equation R eq = R 1 + R 2 and for the parallel circuits the value will be similar to 1/R eq = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2. Ideal Current Source Practical Current Source Solved Examples: 1. Other systematic errors occur when equipment is used incorrectly, like reading from the wrong end of the meter stick, or forgetting to subtract the weight of the container when finding the mass of a liquid, or converting. Study the basic functions of digital multi-meter (DMM) 3. For example, if the spring (used for producing controlling torque) of a permanent magnet instrument. 1This wind turbine in the Thames Estuary in the UK is an example of induction at work. Material: An unknown resistance or resistance coil, connecting wires, a […]. 0 V and the time to discharge to 1/e of that value, 3. Common sources of error in physics laboratory experiments: Incomplete definition (may be systematic or random) - One reason that it is impossible to make exact measurements is that the measurement is not always clearly defined. RLC Circuits Quiz Questions. To calculate impedance, you must know the value of all resistors and the impedance of all inductors and capacitors, which. RLC Circuit Simulation. 7, "Oscillation Circuits", on pp. Student Section – Energy Conversion in a Light Bulb NOTE: It is easier to wire the circuit if you first connect the series circuit and then add the voltmeter in parallel. Review the sections on RLC circuit in textbook (6. In an RC circuit connected to a DC voltage source, the current decreases from its initial value of I 0 =emf/R to zero as the voltage on the capacitor reaches the same value as the emf. Chapter 24, sections 1-5 2. PRE-LAB Do the ORCAD simulations of both RLC parallel and RLC series circuits. From there we can mix and match. MANUAL EE 391 Page | 9 Example 2: To simulate and study the transient response of a series R-L circuit using PSPICE where R=100Ω, L=10mH for the following conditions: 1) source voltage is 10V DC with all initial conditions set equal to zero. Real-time circuit simulation, interactivity, and dynamic visualization make it a must have application for professionals and academia. The objective of this lab is to study circuits with re-sistors connected in series, parallel, and combination. Analysis of digital circuits and linear circuits based on application of circuit models of devices and circuit theory. , we connect a short circuit across the terminals of the circuit and then calculate the value of the current in that short circuit. Full wave rectifier simulation in Simulink Open MATLAB and then open Simulink using the simulink icon on MATLAB as we have been doing in previous tutorials. Figure 5: RLC Circuit 2. Analyzing Amplifier Circuits. (610216) : Course Description: DC circuits. Find the phase different. CHAPTER10:EXPERIMENT8 Figure10. This app covers entire aspects of the subject, from basic engineering to advanced and modern topics related to Electrical Engineering and Technology. Compare measured and calculated voltages and current for a series - parallel RLC circuit at discrete frequencies. Use of TechView is discussed in a separate publication. There are four meshes in the circuit. Figure E5-1 A series RLC network in which the capacitor voltage is taken as the output. RLC Circuits Quiz Questions. generator in your lab, you can use a similar technique to make multi-frequency impedance measurements with good results. With hardware compensation, a variable voltage source is inserted into the circuit to cancel the influence of the cold-junction temperature. Background A. An AC circuit is the one in which the source of the circuit is of alternating current rather than DC (Direct current). The behavior of circuits containing resistors (R) and inductors (L) is explained using calculus. As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students. 27-15 is initially uncharged. Multi-lab Circuit Board w/ 1 Ohm Resistor. EveryCircuit is an easy to use, highly interactive circuit simulator and schematic capture tool. 6 Maximum Power Dissipation CHAPTER FIVE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION 5. ECE 494 - Electrical Engineering Laboratory III Experiment 1: Three Phase Power Measurements Objectives To demonstrate the line and phase relations in 3-phase balanced networks. Possible sources of error in this lab include random intrinsic error in the oscilloscope, resistor, inductor and capacitor, and also in measurements. The output voltage of the Wheatstone bridge circuit is expressed in millivolts output per volt input. : Welcome to the ECE 241 lab! In this first experiment, you will build and make measurements on a few resistor circuits. Thevenin equivalent circuits are discussed in Section 5. ω = 2πf is the angular frequency in rad/s,. Clipping Circuit Design Design a circuit to obtain an output waveform as shown in Figure 7. A series RLC circuit consists of a resistor R, an inductor L and a capacitor C connected in series. Overview: The goal of this lab is to observe the effect of placing a resistor, capacitor, and inductor in the same circuit. Repeat the process until all sources in the original circuit have been used. Introduction: The voltage through an RLC series circuit will be measured as a function of frequency for a fixed applied voltage. The resistor, inductor, capacitor, and voltage source are connected to form an L-R-C series circuit. resistances. For instance, a temperature sensor in an oven often consists of a resistor with a resistance that increases with temperature. f is the frequency in hertz (Hz),. These equations show that a series RC circuit has a time constant, usually denoted τ = RC being the time it takes the voltage across the component to either rise (across C) or fall (across R) to within 1 / e of its final value. We will study the way voltages and currents change in these circuits when voltages are suddenly applied or removed. In the above circuit (Figure 1) V is the applied voltage, I is the common current for all the three elements, f is the frequency, and R, L, and C represent the values for resistance, inductance, and capacitance, respectively, of the three components in the circuit. Simulation lab rewritten. A first-order RL circuit is composed of one resistor and one inductor and is the simplest type of RL circuit. Together with their mass-spring-dashpot mechanical analog, they are used to illustrate fundamental systems-theory concepts and techniques, such as Laplace-transform techniques and resonance. Note that if you are taking an AP Placement lab course, you need to present a suitable lab notebook in order to get AP credit at most colleges and universities. A circuit simulator with graphical user interface (GUI) Qucs is a circuit simulator with graphical user interface. To understand the idea of resonance, and to determine the behavior of current and voltage in a driven RLC circuit above, below and at the resonant frequency PRE-LAB READING. 1 Introduction Inductance is one of the three basic, passive, circuit element properties. docx Page 13 of 25 2016-01-07 8:48:00 PM Configuration II. 2 Objective The objective of this lab is to build and test a first order, low-pass filter with resistors and capacitors. The charging and discharging of a capacitor is the actual movement of electrons into and out of the capacitor. Common sources of error in physics laboratory experiments: Incomplete definition (may be systematic or random) - One reason that it is impossible to make exact measurements is that the measurement is not always clearly defined. This approach may also be adapted for use as an instructional lab exercise. Failing to label voltage polarities and current directions When you analyze any circuit, the first step is to properly label the […]. available options for first order high-pass circuits include an RC circuit (with the output measured across the resistor) or an RL circuit (with the output measured across the inductor). SYMBOLS FOR CIRCUIT ELEMENTS In this lab you will be using many electrical components, all of which will be symbolized in schematic diagrams. A circuit’s impulse response may be calculated mathematically using the Dirac delta function as the input “forcing function”. Most students complete part A in week one and part B in week two. Partner: Connie Dupre. ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria). Source, capacitor, resistance and inductor in that order. When the switch is flipped upward to connect with the voltage source, the current rises in the inductor at a rate depending on the values of R and L. Also, the nodes have been identified and labeled in anticipation of writing node equations. This energy is supplied from an oscillating emf source with an alternating current (AC). We have also seen in our tutorial about series RLC circuits that two or more sinusoidal signals can be combined using phasors providing that they have the same frequency supply. Two curves are shown: one for R = 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ. The angle for the RLC circuit depends on which leg is larger. Figure 2 illustrates the first of two circuits constructed for this experiment. KVL around the loop in Fig (b) 3 5i v x 18 0 3 1i v x 0 v x 3 i (1) Appling KVL to the loop containing only the 3V voltage source, the 1W resistor, and v x yields: (2). If we have a capacitor, inductor, and resistor placed in series or parallel with either a voltage or. Depending on the circuit constants R, L, and C, the total response of a series RLC circuit that is excited by a DC source, may be overdamped, critically damped, or underdamped. The problem is that square() isn't an analytical function, and AFAIK Matlab doesn't have such a thing. If the resonant circuit includes a generator with periodically varying emf, the forced oscillations arise in the system. Is this for a homework or school project? I'm racking my brain to think of an experiment where I'm using an RC circuit. If all three components are present, the circuit is known as an RLC circuit (or LRC). The enclosure contains a circuit card and a weathertight connection for the RS232 TechView. An RLC series circuit has a 40. 1µF and L=1. Clipping Circuit Form the circuit of Figure 1 on the breadboard. 01 times the resonant frequency, to 100 times that frequency. EE 140 ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUITS SPRING 2011 C. There are four meshes in the circuit. These blunders should stick out like sore thumbs if one person checks the work of another person. In our previous lesson, we learned how to approach a network with both independent and dependent sources. Circuit analysis is the process of finding all the currents and voltages in a network of connected components. The output voltage of the Wheatstone bridge circuit is expressed in millivolts output per volt input. A circuit’s impulse response may be calculated mathematically using the Dirac delta function as the input “forcing function”. (610216) : Course Description: DC circuits. A current source of positive value forces current to flow out of the N+ node, through the source, and into the N- node. 2) source voltage is 10V DC with initial condition i L (0_) 20mA. These blunders should stick out like sore thumbs if one person checks the work of another person. What could be the source of the error? why did the charging and discharging rates differ with charging being so much faster? Question 2: In a similar experiment, I changed the resistor that was on the circuit and decreased the resistance of the circuit (500 kΩ to 10 kΩ) to have two different estimates of the time constant and hence. RLC Series Circuit When a pure resistance of R ohms, a pure inductance of L Henry and a pure capacitance of C farads are connected together in series combination with each other then RLC Series Circuit is formed. In practical, no current source can be ideal, practical current source is always shown with resistance in parallel. I have done an experimeny to investigate how the voltage across a capacitor, Vc varies as it charges and to find the capacitive time constant in a DC RC circuits and Study resonance in an AC inductor-capacitor circuit (AC LRC circuit). You should listen carefully to this presentation and follow all. The current is given by I = I cos(ωt), so v = V cos(ωt + φ). However, when I put them in this order in lt spice, the response is nothing like a sine wave slowly decaying. Show that you can measure the voltage across the resistor R. The capacitor was charged to 10. The graph to the right shows normalized values of current through a series RLC circuit at frequencies ranging from 0. Thus far we have analysed the behaviour of a series RLC circuit whose source voltage is a fixed frequency steady state sinusoidal supply. A circuit simulator with graphical user interface (GUI) Qucs is a circuit simulator with graphical user interface. 8 ,capacitor is in lead ,then the resistor this mean the capacitor will received the voltage. Below we have a circuit with four nodes: A, C, E, and F. The dividing line between the three cases is different, however. • To observe the behavior of resistors in AC circuits. From this lab we know how to build a half wave rectifier circuit. In exactly the same way that a real circuit must have some sort of power supply - even if that power supply is actually the signal source itself (for example, a crystal set or a volume control potentiometer) or comes from a capacitor pre-charged to some voltage or an inductor pre-charged to some current prior switching the circuit on - a. Input power will cause interactions between gate circuit and power switching circuit, especially for the case of gate driver voltage is comparable with input voltage. Fiore is copyrighted under the terms of a Creative Commons license: This work is freely redistributable for non-commercial use, share-alike with attribution. Complete the pre-lab assignment at the end of the handout. 0 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 2 dt dv t RC v t LC d v t Describing equation : The circuit has two initial conditions that must be satisfied, so the solution for v(t) must have two constants. The RLC circuit is analogous to the wheel of a car driven over a corrugated road (Figure \(\PageIndex{5}\)). f is the frequency in hertz (Hz),. EE 391 CIRCUIT THEORY LAB. What is current source? The source which has very high internal resistance. From the three timed trials record the time between stimulus artifact and action potential (latency in ms) and measure the distance as described in the m. Simulating Second Order Circuits in PSPICE In this tutorial, we will provide an example of a simulation of a second order RLC circuit. 2002 Sergio Franco Engr 301- Lab #1 - Page 1 of 8 SFSU - ENGR 301 - ELECTRONICS LAB LAB #1: TIME AND FREQUENCY RESPONSES OF SERIES RLC CIRCUITS Updated July 19, 2003 Objective: To investigate the step, impulse, and frequency responses of series RLC circuits. Use [ (1 ) (1 )] [ (1. These blunders should stick out like sore thumbs if one person checks the work of another person. The resonant RLC circuits are connected in series and parallel. Circuit B is the same circuit with one current source turned off: Circuit B contains one current source, with i s 2 replaced by an. Organizations around the world trust ANSYS to deliver the best value for their engineering simulation software investment. A first-order RL circuit is composed of one resistor and one inductor and is the simplest type of RL circuit. A first order RL circuit is one of the simplest analogue infinite impulse response electronic filters. 0 kHz, noting that these frequencies and the values for L and C are the same as in Example 1 and Example 2 from Reactance, Inductive, and Capacitive. e I r = I l = I c = I. A transient analysis deals with the behaviour of an electric circuit as a function of time. 1 Figure 11. , type textbooks. Set the Amplitude, Phase, and Frequency parameters of the AC Voltage Source block according to the values shown in Circuit to Be Modeled. RLC Circuit: A RLC circuit as the name implies will consist of a Resistor, Capacitor and Inductor connected in series or parallel. 4 Special measuring circuits 94 A 6. hMETIS is a set of programs for partitioning hypergraphs such as those corresponding to VLSI circuits. Blunders are final source of errors and these errors are caused by faulty recording or due to a wrong value while recording a measurement, or misreading a scale or forgetting a digit while reading a scale. Connect the primary side of the transformer to AC mains and the secondary side to rectifier input. Appendix F added. Example 1: Find the three unknown currents and three unknown voltages in the circuit below: Note: The direction of a current and the polarity of a voltage can be assumed arbitrarily. We had to basically keep on increasing the electric potential at the source and then record the voltage across the resistor, and the current then calculate the resistance. The DC gain, , again is the ratio of the magnitude of the steady-state step response to the magnitude of the step input, and for stable systems it is the value of the transfer function when. The bridge is commonly used in control circuits. RLC Circuit Simulation. Voltage and current are indicated on separate LED-meters. From the result in the Table 7. Since the current through each element is known, the voltage can be found in a straightforward manner. You will determine the resonance frequency, f o, and the quality factor, Q, for each circuit in several different ways. Sinusoidal sources are particularly important because: (1) Generation, transmission, consumption of electric energy occur under sinusoidal conditions. AC/DC Electronics Lab Circuit Board 1. Physics 136-2: General Physics Lab Laboratory Manual - Electricity and Magnetism NorthwesternUniversity Version1. Introduction: Inductors and capacitors are energy storage devices. It states that the amount of electric current flowing in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage applied to the circuit, and inversely proportional to its resistance. The discriminant is negative and this yields an imaginary part to. Figure 2-1 (a) A circuit that contains a potentiometer and (b) an equivalent circuit formed by replacing. Multi-lab Circuit Board w/ 1 Ohm Resistor. 7, "Oscillation Circuits", on pp. Experiment 10 ~ RLC Series circuit Resonance in an RLC Series Circuit Objective: To experimentally determine the resonance frequency in a series RLC circuit and compare this to the expected resonance value. The timer depends on the voltage thresholds on an RC circuit. We will verify that the oscillations observed in the voltage has a natural frequency of approximately 1/(L*C)^1/2. Experiment 4: Damped Oscillations and Resonance in RLC Circuits Goals: An RLC circuit is a damped harmonically oscillating system, where the voltage across the capaci-tor is the oscillating quantity. The behavior of circuits containing resistors (R) and inductors (L) is explained using calculus. This is Practical of series Resonance R-L-C ckt for Basic Electrical Engineering. For drawing the phasor diagram, take current phasor as reference and draw it on horizontal axis as shown in diagram. Be able to obtain circuit impedance and admittance. changing one part of a series circuit changes the current in all parts of the circuit, 3. ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria). AC Circuits Basics, Impedance, Resonant Frequency, RL RC RLC LC Circuit Explained, Physics Problems - Duration: 1:00:12. As with circuits made up only of resistors, electrical current can ﬂow in. PRE-LAB Do the ORCAD simulations of both RLC parallel and RLC series circuits. THEORY The circuit of interest is shown in Fig. Types of Errors with Calculation The development of science & technology is most important exclusive of accessibility of genuine calculated values to give realistic proofs. We will study the way voltages and currents change in these circuits when voltages are suddenly applied or removed. PH 2223: Phase and Impedance in an RLC Circuit 3 Phase Measurements Each of the voltages in your circuit (v R, v L, v C, and v S, the source voltage) has the form v(t) = V max sin(ωt + ϕ), where V max is the amplitude (the maximum value, the zero-to-peak voltage) (see Figure 1b). From this lab we know how to build a half wave rectifier circuit. To prepare students for more advanced courses in circuit analysis. There are NO MAKE-UPs for any missed labs. 2: Plotsofamplitude(top)and phase shift (bottom) for frequencies near resonance(f 0). Consider the circuit shown in Fig. The capacitance was. Example : The 17th century Danish astronomer, Ole Rømer, observed that the periods of the satellites of Jupiter would appear to fluctuate depending on the distance. First-order circuits with DC forcing functions: In the last class we consider source-free circuits (circuits with no independent sources for t >0 ). So that, the supermesh would enclose both. The approach, in this case will be similar to the previous one. Here are two examples of a lab report. available options for first order high-pass circuits include an RC circuit (with the output measured across the resistor) or an RL circuit (with the output measured across the inductor). Experiment 10 ~ RLC Series circuit Resonance in an RLC Series Circuit Objective: To experimentally determine the resonance frequency in a series RLC circuit and compare this to the expected resonance value. The purpose was to study resonance in a series resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit by examining the current through the circuit as a function of the frequency of the applied voltage. Do not list all possible sources of errors there. In the given circuit, determine all branch currents. Wind pushes the blades of the turbine, spinning a shaft attached to magnets. Goals: To develop the fundamental tools of linear circuit analysis which will be useful to all engineers. For series and parallel circuits, the resistor, capacitor and inductor are connected differently, and different damping factors result. APPARATUS:. In this experiment, we will investigate the behavior of circuits containing combinations of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. • The energy already stored in the capacitor is released to the resistors. Current always remains same: The current in series circuit always. It is always necessary to understand the cause of the error, such as whether it is due to the imprecision of your equipment, your own estimations, or a mistake in your experiment. This experiment will introduce you to the properties of circuits that contain both resistors AND capacitors. I am going through a worked example to calculate v(t) of the capacitor in an RLC circuit. Series RL Circuit In a series RL circuit, the voltages across R and L will also be 90 o out of phase. The proce-dures employed in the examples are, however, quite general, and apply to all circuit arrangements in Table 1. Overview: The goal of this lab is to observe the effect of placing a resistor, capacitor, and inductor in the same circuit. Apparatus: Range/Rating Make 1. The angle for the RLC circuit depends on which leg is larger. Also, you need to choose and specify VSIN or ISIN as a voltage source for the series or parallel RLC circuits. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD, MEASUREMENT AND READINGS Consider the Parallel RLC circuit of figure 1. Lab attendance is mandatory and the lab is 25% of the course grade. V R = i R; V L = L di dt; V C = 1 C Z i dt : * A parallel RLC circuit driven by a constant voltage source is trivial to analyze. 2 Complex Impedance When one is interested in finding the voltage of an element in an AC circuit, the method of complex impedance is very useful. Electrical Resonance—RLC circuits 2 Part II OVERVIEW You will be testing four RLC circuits. Experiment 4: Damped Oscillations and Resonance in RLC Circuits Goals: An RLC circuit is a damped harmonically oscillating system, where the voltage across the capaci-tor is the oscillating quantity. Vary the frequency of the sine-wave on signal generator from 500Hz to 2 KHz in small steps,. resistances. If C = 100pF is used in the circuit above, calculate L such that the oscillation angular frequency, , is 107rad/sec. Attach the voltage sensor across the resistor. Measure current amplitude and phase (indirect). Set the Source on Channel A of the oscilloscope, and the voltage across the ca[pcitance on Channel B of the oscilloscope. When a battery with voltage is connected across the capacitor, equal and opposite charges rapidly collect onto the plates due to the electric field created by the wires connecting the two plates 1. Study common electronics laboratory instruments 4. Be able to represent currents and voltages in "Phasor" format 3. Circuit analysis is the process of finding all the currents and voltages in a network of connected components. Complete the pre-lab assignment at the end of the handout. We measured the time varying voltage across the capacitor in a RLC loop when an external voltage was applied. Electrical Safety is a Serious Issue Electrical Safety in the workplace is the most important job of an electrical worker. Be able to obtain the steady-state response of RLC circuits (in all forms) to a sinusoidal input 2. The first. The circuit whose parameters change with the change in voltage and current is called the non-linear ckt. From the result in the Table 7. Circuits containing one inductor or one capacitor are characterized by a transient response followed by a steady-state response. resistance circuit gave errors of 10 to 20%. generator in your lab, you can use a similar technique to make multi-frequency impedance measurements with good results. To compare experimental results with theory and PSpice simulations, and to account for possible differences. Conclusion In the charging and discharging of an RC circuit, it was seen that the changes in the value of the resistance affects the rate of charging/discharging. Solve the circuit by mesh analysis and find the current and the voltage across. by Ron Kurtus (revised 17 October 2019) A direct current (DC) electric circuit consists of a source of DC electricity—such as a battery—with a conducting wire going from one of the source terminals to a set of electric devices and then back to the other terminal, in a complete circuit. tronic circuits 2. Measuring a battery's open circuit voltage is not a reliable measure of its ability to deliver current. Pre-lab: 1. Study the safety procedures of the electrical lab 2. The current stops flowing as the capacitor becomes. RLC Series Circuit When a pure resistance of R ohms, a pure inductance of L Henry and a pure capacitance of C farads are connected together in series combination with each other then RLC Series Circuit is formed. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Soln : = 0. Use a 1 kHz triangle wave with a 10-volt peak-to-peak magnitude (zero DC offset) as the input signal. EQUIPMENT Circuit board, D-cell batteries (2), wires, resistors, multimeter, and probe leads. As a battery ages, its internal resistance builds up. The value of the rated secondary current is 5A. ECE 202 - Experiment 5 - Lab Report STEP RESPONSE OF 1ST AND 2ND ORDER CIRCUITS YOUR NAME_____ GTA'S SIGNATURE_____ LAB MEETING TIME_____ Objectives: To observe responses of first and second order circuits - RC, RL and RLC circuits, source-free or with the DC excitation THE HP IMPEDANCE ANALYZER. Consequently, we have ( )2 V = I R + XL − XC. Procedure: Figure 1: Series - Parallel RLC Circuit 1. frequency (Eq:1) at resonance. An RLC series circuit has a 40. It contains a source of power (either DC or AC), a resistor R, and of course a. EENG223: CIRCUIT THEORY I Source Transformation • Example 4.

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